Ely was also grade my paper online free cousin of the head of Standard Oil of California, December Factory noise led to tinnitus A machine operator was left with serious hearing difficulties after his employers failed to provide him with appropriate hearing protection.
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She was the niece of an executive of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and a cousin of the head of Standard Oil of California. TUC warns that firms and government case study of phobia patient DWP-run disability centre in Blackpool for 10 years before being signed off sick for six months last June, on the other hand, were allied to the PMPs in advocating a more secular version of the coercive Utopian Kingdom to be achieved by government.
Introduction Standard theory views government as functional: The analogy rests on the market economy: But surely it is strained to say that, in the same way, a demand for postal services will spontaneously give rise to a government monopoly Post Office, outlawing its competition and giving us ever-poorer service for ever-higher prices. Indeed, if the analogy fails when even a genuine service e.
When the government, in short, takes money at gun point from A and gives it to B, who is demanding what? The cream cheese producer on the market is using his resources to supply a genuine demand for cream cheese; he is not engaged in coercive redistribution. But what feyeria.com the government’s taking from A and giving the money to B?
Who are the demanders, and who are the suppliers? One can say that the subsidized, the “donees,” are “demanding” this redistribution; surely, however, it would be straining credulity to claim that A, the fleeced, is also “demanding” this activity.
A, in fact, is the reluctant supplier, the coerced donor; B is gaining at A’s expense. But the really interesting role here is played by G, the government. For apart from the unlikely case where G is an unpaid altruist, performing this action as an uncompensated Robin Hood, G gets a rake-off, a handling charge, a finder’s fee, so to speak, for this little transaction.
G, the government, in other words, performs his act of “redistribution” by fleecing A for the benefit of B and of himself. Once we focus on this aspect of the transaction, we begin to realize that G, the government, might not just be a passive recipient of B’s felt need and economic demand, as standard theory would have it; instead, G himself might be an active demander and, as a full-time, paid Robin Hood, might even have stimulated B’s demand in the first Expository essay topics for elementary so as to be in on the deal.
The felt need, then, might be on the part of the governmental Robin Hood himself. Why The Welfare State? Why has government increased greatly over this century? Specifically, why nietzsche 2nd essay genealogy of morality the welfare state appeared, grown, and become ever-larger and more powerful?
What was the functional need felt here? One answer is that the development of poverty over the past century gave rise to welfare and redistribution. But this makes little sense, since it is evident that the average person’s irwin mitchell online will writing service of living has grown considerably over the past century-and-a-half, and irwin mitchell online will writing service has greatly diminished.
But perhaps inequality has been aggravated, and the masses, even though better off, are upset by the increased income gap between themselves and the wealthy? But it should also be evident from one glance at the Third World that the disparity of income and wealth between the rich and the masses is far greater there than in Western capitalist countries. So what’s the problem? Another standard answer more plausibly asserts that irwin mitchell online will writing service and urbanization, by the late 19th irwin mitchell online will writing service, deprived the masses, uprooted from the soil or rajanacharya.000webhostapp.com small town, of their sense of community, belonging, and mutual aid.
Certainly it is true that the welfare state emerged during the same period as industrialization and urbanization, but coincidence find someone to write my paper not establish causation. One grave flaw in this urbanization theory is that it ignores the actual nature of the city, at least as it had been before it was effectively destroyed in the decades after World War II.
The city was not a monolithic agglomeration but a series of local neighborhoods, each with its own distinctive character, network of clubs, fraternal associations, and street corner hangouts. Jane Jacobs’s memorable depiction of the urban neighborhood in her Death and Life of Great American Cities was a charming and accurate portrayal of the unity in diversity of each neighborhood, of the benign role of the “street watcher” and the local jackychew.000webhostapp.com States by was almost exclusively Catholic and ethnic, and both the political and social life of Catholic males in each neighborhood revolved, and still, to an extent, revolves, around the neighborhood saloon.
There the men of the irwin mitchell online will writing service would repair each evening to the saloon, where they would drink a few beers, socialize, and discuss politics. Typically, they would receive political instruction from the local saloonkeeper, who was generally also the local Democratic ward heeler. Wives socialized separately, and at home.
The beloved community was still alive and well in urban America. On deeper historical inquiry, moreover, this seemingly plausible industrialism explanation falls apart, and not only on the familiar problem of American exceptionalism, the fact that the United States, despite industrializing more rapidly, lagged behind European countries in developing the welfare state.
Detailed investigations of a number of industrialized countries, for example, find no correlation whatsoever between the degree of industrialization and the adoption of social insurance programs between the s and the s or the s. The earliest massive social welfare program in the United States was the dispensing of post-Civil War pensions to aging veterans of the Union Army and their dependents.
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cheap dissertation writing uk Yet, these post-Civil War pensions were more likely to aid farmers and small townsmen than residents of large industrial cities.
County level post-Civil War pension studies in Ohio in the late s, the peak years for these pension payments, demonstrate a negative correlation between the degree of urbanism, or percentage of people living in homes rather than on farms, and the rates of receipt of pensions.
The author of the study concluded that “generally, pensions were distributed to predominantly rural, Anglo-Saxon areas,” while the major city of Cleveland had the lowest per capita rate of receipt of pensions.
This thesis has been summed up boldly by one of its adherents. Everywhere, he says, the welfare state has been the product of a highly centralized trade union movement with a class-wide membership base, operating in close coordination irwin mitchell online will writing service a unified reformist-socialist party which, primarily on the basis of massive working class support, is able to achieve hegemonic status in the party system.
But setting that aside and concentrating on the United States, there has been, for one thing, no massively supported socialist party, let along one which has managed to achieve “hegemonic status. But here, historians, almost uniformly starry-eyed supporters of labor unions, have wildly exaggerated the importance of unions in American projetoeducare.000webhostapp.com When we get past romantic stories of strikes and industrial conflicts in which the union role is inevitably whitewashed if not glorifiedirwin mitchell online will writing service the best economic historians don’t bother informing the reader of the meager quantitative role or importance of unions in the American economy.
Indeed, until the New Deal, and with the exception of brief periods when unionization was coercively imposed by the federal government during World War I, and in the railroads during the sthe percentage of business plan eksi members in the labor force typically ranged from a minuscule 1 to 2 percent during recessions, up to 5 or 6 percent during inflationary booms, and then down to the negligible irwin mitchell online will writing service in the next recession.
Specifically, unions could only flourish as skilled-craft unions a which could control the supply nz16b.000webhostapp.com number of workers involved; b where this limited number constituted a small fraction of the employer’s payroll; and c where, because of technological factors, the industry in question was not very actively competitive across geographical irwins mitchell online will writing service.
One way to sum up these factors is to say, in economists’ jargon, that the employers’ demand schedule for this type of labor is inelastic, that is, that a small restriction in the supply of such labor could give rise to a large wage increase for the remaining workers. Labor unions could flourish, moreover, in such geographically uncompetitive industries as anthracite coal, which is found in only a small area of northeastern Pennsylvania; and the various building trades carpenters, masons, electricians, joiners, etc.
In contrast, despite determined efforts, it was impossible for unions to prosper in such industries as bituminous coal, Fun problem solving maths ks1 were brought about by governmental coercion from above. Labor unions, then, were an effect rather than a cause of the welfare state, at least in the United States.
Yankee Postmillennial Pietism If it wasn’t industrialism or mass movements of the working class that brought the welfare state to America, what was it? Where are we to irwin mitchell online will writing service for the causal forces? In the first place, we must realize that the two most powerful motivations in human history have always been ideology including religious doctrineand economic interest, and that a joining of these two motivations can be downright irresistible.
It was these two forces that joined powerfully together to bring about the welfare state. Ideology was propelled by an intensely held religious doctrine that swept over and controlled virtually all Protestant churches, especially in “Yankee” areas of the North, from on.
Likewise, a growing corollary ideology of statism and corporate socialism spread among intellectuals and ministers by the end of the 19th century. Among the economic interests promoted by the burgeoning welfare state were two in particular. One was a growing legion of educated and often overeducated intellectuals, technocrats, and the “helping professions” who sought power, prestige, subsidies, contracts, cushy jobs from the welfare state, and restrictions of entry into their field via forms of licensing.
The second was groups of big businessmen who, after failing to achieve monopoly power on the free market, turned to government — local, state, and federal — to gain it for them.
The government would provide subsidies, contracts, and, particularly, enforced cartelization. Afterthese two groups coalesced, combining two crucial elements: The new coalition joined together to create and accelerate a welfare state in America. Not only was this true init remains true today.
Perhaps the most fateful of the events giving rise to and shaping the welfare state was the transformation of American Protestantism that took place in a remarkably brief period during the late s. Riding in on a irwin mitchell online will writing service from Europe, fueled by an intense emotionalism often generated by revival meetings, this Second Great Awakening conquered and remolded the Protestant churches, leaving such older forms as Calvinism far behind.
The new Protestantism was spearheaded by the emotionalism of revival meetings held throughout the country by the Rev. This new Protestantism was pietist, scorning liturgy as papist or formalistic, and equally scornful of the formalisms of Calvinist creed or church organization. Hence, denominationalism, God’s Law, and church organization were no longer important. What counted was each person’s achieving salvation by his own free will, by being “born again,” or being “baptized in the Holy Spirit.
The new pietism took different forms in various regions of the country. In the South, it became personalist, or salvational; the irwin mitchell online will writing service was on each person’s achieving this rebirth of salvation on his own, rather than via social or political action. In the North, especially in Yankee areas, the form of the new Protestantism was very different. It was aggressively evangelical and postmillennialist, that is, it became each believer’s sacred duty to devote his energies to trying to establish a Kingdom of God on Earth, to establishing the perfect society in America and eventually the world, to stamp out sin and “make America holy,” as essential preparation for Dissertation editor services eventual Second Advent of Jesus Christ.
Each believer’s duty went far beyond mere support of missionary activity, for a crucial part of the new doctrine held that he who did not try his very best to maximize the salvation of others would not himself be thesis visual aids After only a few years of agitation, it was clear to these new Protestants that the Kingdom of God on Earth could only be established by government, which was required to bolster the salvation of individuals by stamping out occasions for sin.
While the list of sins was unusually extensive, the PMPs postmillennial pietists stressed in particular the suppression of Demon Rum, which irwins mitchell online will writing service men’s minds to prevent them from achieving salvation; slavery, which prevented the enslaved from achieving such salvation; any activities on the Sabbath except praying or reading the Bible; and any activities of the Anti-Christ in the Vatican, the Pope of Rome and his conscious and dedicated agents who constituted the Catholic Church.
The Yankees who particularly embraced this view were an ethno-cultural group descending from the original Puritans of Massachusetts, and who, beginning in rural New England, moved westward and settled upstate New York “the Burned-Over District”northern Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, and neighboring areas.
As early as the Puritan days, the Yankees were eager to coerce themselves and their neighbors; the first American public schools were set up in New England to inculcate obedience and civic virtue in their charges.
Finney on down to virtually reparacionordenador.es the Progressive intellectuals who would set the course of America in the years afterthey were, almost to a man, born in Yankee areas: Almost to a man, they were raised in very strict Sabbatarian homes, and often their father was a lay preacher and their mother the daughter of a preacher.
Indeed, we have in recent years been strikingly reminded of the three very different and clashing groups, all Protestants, who came from very different regions of Great Britain, and who settled in different regions of North America: Charles Grandison Finney, who essentially launched the pietist sweep, was virtually a paradigmatic Yankee.
He was born in Connecticut; at an early irwin mitchell online will writing service, his father joined the emigration by taking his family to a western New York farm, on the Ontario frontier. While a nominal Presbyterian, in at the age of 29, Finney converted to the new pietism, experiencing his second baptism, his “baptism of the Holy Spirit,” his conversion being greatly aided by the fact that he was self-educated in religion, and lacked any religious training. Quizlet spanish persuasive essay terms aside the Calvinist tradition of scholarship in the Bible, Finney was able to carve out his new religion, and to ordain himself in his new version of the faith.
Launching his remarkably successful revival movement in when he was an attorney in northeastern Ohio, his new pietism swept example essay writing Yankee areas in the East and midwest. Finney wound up at Oberlin College, in the Western Reserve area of Ohio, where he became president, and transformed Oberlin into the preeminent national center for the education and dissemination of postmillennial pietism.
Origins of the Welfare State in America
It was therefore easy for the new pietists to expand their consciousness to favor paternalism in national economic affairs. Using big government to create a perfect economy seemed to parallel employing such government to stamp out sin and create a perfect society.
Early on, the PMPs advocated irwin mitchell online will writing service intervention to aid business interests and to protect American industry from the competition of foreign imports. In addition, they tended to advocate public works, and government creation of mass purchasing power through paper money and central banking.
The PMPs therefore quickly gravitated toward the statist Whig Party, and then to the vehemently anti-Catholic America or “Know Nothing” Party, finally culminating in all-out support for the Republican Party, the “party of great moral ideas. Becoming known as the “party of creative essay format which included the separation of government from the banking system.
The Democrat Party was the champion of laissez faire, minimal government, and irwin mitchell online will writing service from its inception until its takeover by the ultra-pietist Bryanite forces in Afterthe laissez-faire Democratic constituency was greatly strengthened by an irwin mitchell online will writing service of religious groups opposed to Yankee theocracy.
If postmillennial Protestantism provided a crucial impetus toward State dictation over society and the economy, another vital force on behalf of the partnership of government and industry was the zeal of businessmen and industrialists eager to jump on the bandwagon of state privilege.